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Depository Financial Institution


These three types of institutions have become more like each other in recent decades, and their unique identities have become less distinct. They still differ, however, in specialization and emphasis, and in their regulatory and supervisory structures.




depository financial institution



Commercial banks are the traditional "department stores" of the financial services world. Thrift institutions and credit unions are more like specialty shops that, over time, have expanded their lines of business to better compete for market share. (Connecticut law, in fact, grants thrifts the same powers as commercial banks).


Commercial banks are generally stock corporations whose principal obligation is to make a profit for their shareholders. Basically, banks receive deposits, and hold them in a variety of different accounts; extend credit through loans and other instruments: and facilitate the movement of funds. While commercial banks mostly specialize in short-term business credit, they also make consumer loans and mortgages, and have a broad range of financial powers. Their corporate charters and the powers granted to them under state and federal law determine the range of their activities.


Savings and loan associations and savings banks specialize in real estate lending, particularly loans for single-family homes and other residential properties. They can be owned by shareholders ("stock" ownership), or by their depositors and borrowers ("mutual" ownership). These institutions are referred to as "thrifts," because they originally offered only savings accounts, or time deposits. Over the past two decades, however, they have acquired a wide range of financial powers, and now offer checking accounts (demand deposits) and make business and consumer loans as well as mortgages.


Savings institutions must hold a certain percentage of their loan portfolio in housing-related assets to retain their charter, as well as their membership in the Federal Home Loan Bank System. This is called the "qualified thrift lender" (QTL) test. Savings institutions must maintain 65% of their portfolio in housing-related or other qualified assets to maintain their status. Recent liberalization of the QTL test has allowed thrifts to use some non-housing assets to meet this requirement.


Credit unions are cooperative financial institutions, formed by groups of people with a "common bond." These groups of people pool their funds to form the institution's deposit base; the group owns and controls the institution together. Membership in a credit union is not open to the general public, but is restricted to people who share the common bond of the group that created the credit union. Examples of this common bond are working for the same employer, belonging to the same church or social group, or living in the same community. Credit unions are nonprofit institutions that seek to encourage savings and make excess funds within a community available at low cost to their members.


Credit unions accept deposits in a variety of accounts. All credit unions offer savings accounts, or time deposits; the larger institutions also offer checking and money market accounts. Credit unions' financial powers have expanded to include almost anything a bank or savings association can do, including making home loans, issuing credit cards, and even making some commercial loans. Credit unions are exempt from federal taxation and sometimes receive subsidies, in the form of free space or supplies, from their sponsoring organizations.


The FDIC provides a wealth of resources for consumers, bankers, analysts, and other stakeholders. Browse our collection of financial education materials, data tools, documentation of laws and regulations, information on important initiatives, and more.


This series, in partnership with the Santa Clara University (SCU) Leavey School of Business, builds on the themes of the 2019 FDIC FinTech Research Conference, highlighting the opportunities and challenges for financial institutions, consumers, and the financial system created by the use of big data and applied technologies.


Pursuant to Tenn. Code Ann. 45-1-118(i), Tennessee Department of Financial Institutions Commissioner Greg Gonzales announced today the annual supervision fee for non-depository financial institutions in fiscal year 2022-2023, effective November 1, 2022. The fee is $900.00 for flexible credit licensees and mortgage licensees, and $500.00 for check cashing licensees, deferred presentment licensees, premium finance licensees, industrial loan and thrift registrants, and title pledge licensees. Money transmission licensees will continue to pay licensing and examination fees as required by statute. Mortgage loan originators will continue to pay a licensing and renewal fee of $100.00 and a sponsorship fee of $100.00.


REMINDER: As of April 1, 2013, financial institutions must use the new FinCEN reports, which are available only electronically through the BSA E-Filing System. FinCEN is no longer accepting legacy reports. For more information, click here.


The Non-depository division licenses and examines residential mortgage brokers and lenders, mortgage loan originators, consumer installment loan companies, money transmitters, sellers of payment instruments, and check cashers.


On June 2, Bank of America made a $1 billion, four-year commitment to advance racial equality and economic opportunity, of which $50 million is dedicated to support minority depository institutions (MDIs) and community development financial institution (CDFI) banks. As part of that commitment, today the company is announcing it has now completed 10 equity investments in these institutions, acquiring approximately 4.9% of common equity in each organization as part of the broader $50 million commitment. These investments will facilitate benefits across multiple states and in the communities that these institutions serve through lending, housing, neighborhood revitalization, and other banking services.


This material does not take into account your particular investment objectives, financial situations or needs and is not intended as a recommendation, offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security, financial instrument, or strategy. Before acting on any information in this material, you should consider whether it is suitable for your particular circumstances and, if necessary, seek professional advice. Any opinions expressed herein are given in good faith, are subject to change without notice, and are only correct as of the stated date of their issue.


For most institution types, the 'country' represents the physical location of the institution. For U.S Branches and Agencies of a Foreign Banking Organization (FBO), the 'country' is the physical location of the FBO.


To support American businesses and households, the Federal Reserve Board on Sunday announced it will make available additional funding to eligible depository institutions to help assure banks have the ability to meet the needs of all their depositors. This action will bolster the capacity of the banking system to safeguard deposits and ensure the ongoing provision of money and credit to the economy.


The additional funding will be made available through the creation of a new Bank Term Funding Program (BTFP), offering loans of up to one year in length to banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other eligible depository institutions pledging U.S. Treasuries, agency debt and mortgage-backed securities, and other qualifying assets as collateral. These assets will be valued at par. The BTFP will be an additional source of liquidity against high-quality securities, eliminating an institution's need to quickly sell those securities in times of stress.


After receiving a recommendation from the boards of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Federal Reserve, Treasury Secretary Yellen, after consultation with the President, approved actions to enable the FDIC to complete its resolutions of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank in a manner that fully protects all depositors, both insured and uninsured. These actions will reduce stress across the financial system, support financial stability and minimize any impact on businesses, households, taxpayers, and the broader economy.


Depository institutions may obtain liquidity against a wide range of collateral through the discount window, which remains open and available. In addition, the discount window will apply the same margins used for the securities eligible for the BTFP, further increasing lendable value at the window.


The Board is closely monitoring conditions across the financial system and is prepared to use its full range of tools to support households and businesses, and will take additional steps as appropriate.


Colloquially, a depository institution is a financial institution in the United States (such as a savings bank, commercial bank, savings and loan associations, or credit unions) that is legally allowed to accept monetary deposits from consumers. Under federal law, however, a "depository institution" is limited to banks and savings associations - credit unions are not included.[1]


The Minority Bank Deposit Program was established under Executive Order 11458 (1969). The program expanded its criteria in 1971 under Executive Order 11625 and again in 1979 under Executive Order 12138 to include financial institutions owned or controlled by minority individuals or owned, controlled or operated by women.


In August 1989, Section 308 of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) was signed by the President and describes the goals for preserving the number and characteristics of minority deposit institutions. There are over 5,000 financial institutions in the United States, but only 149 are minority owned. 041b061a72


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